Wednesday, June 19, 2013

Chemosh God of Moab


Chemosh is the national God of Moab. Alternatively the name could be spelt Kemos. Moab was the district East of the Dead Sea, extending from a point some distance North of it to its southern end. The eastern boundary was indefinite, being the border of the desert which is irregular. The length of the territory was about 50 miles and the average width about 30. It is a high tableland, averaging some 3,000 ft. above the level of the Mediterranean and 4,300 ft. above that of the Dead Sea. 
 File:Kingdoms around Israel 830 map.svg

Lord Chemosh is seen as a war and tutelary deity of the Moabites who are kin to the Hebrews through Lot according to the story in Genesis 19:30-37. He is somehow equated with the Mesopotamian God Shamash, but am unsure of the connection. Lord Chemosh like his contemporaries did fight over territory going back and forth between Yahweh and Israel and Molech and the Ammonites.

Eventually his cult was absorbed into the Ares cult with the coming of the Greeks, and Moab was absorbed into the kingdom of the Nabatean Arabs who ruled from Petra.

Story
I am Mesha, son of Kemoshmelek, the king of Moab, the Dibonite. My father was king over Moab for thirty years, and I became king after my father.

And I made this high place for Kemosh in Qarhar . . . because of the deliverance of Mesha, and because he has saved me from all the kings and because he caused me to see [my desire] upon all who hated me. Omri, king of Israel -- he oppressed Moab many days, because Chemosh was angry with his land.

And his son succeeded him, and he also said I will oppress Moab. In my day he spoke according to this word, but I saw my desire upon him and upon his house, and Israel utterly perished forever.

Now Omri had possessed all the land of Medeba and dwelt in it his days and half the days of his son, forty years, but Chemosh restored it in my day. And I built Baal-meon and I made in it the reservoir and I built Kiryathaim. And the men of Gad had dwelt in the land of Ataroth from ofold and the king of Israel had built for himself Ataroth. And I foutht against the city and took it, and I slew all the people of the city, a sight pleasing to Chemosh and to Moab.

And I brought back from there the altar-hearth of Duda and I dragged it before Chemosh in Kiryoth. And I caused to dwell in it the men of Sharon and the men of Meharoth (?).

And Chemosh said to me: "Go take Nebo against Israel"; and I went by night and fought against it from break of dawn till noon, and I took it and slew all, seven thousand men, boys (?), and women, and girls, for I had devoted it to Ashtar-Chemosh.

And I took from there the altar-hearths of Yahweh, and I dragged them before Chemosh. And the king of Israel built Jabaz and dwelt in it while he fought with me and Chemosh drove him out from before me. And I took from Moab two hundred men, all its chiefs, and I led them against Jahaz and took it to add unto Dibon.

And I built Qarhar (?), the wall of the forests and the wall of the hill; and I built its gates and I built its towers, and I built the kings house, and I made the sluices (?) for the reservoir of water in the midst of the city.

And there was no cistern in the midst of the city, in Qarhar (?); and I said to all the people: "Make you each a cistern in his house;" and I cut the cuttings for Qarhar (?) with the help of the prisoners of Israel. I built Aroer and I made the highway by the Arnon. And I built Beth-bamoth, for it had been destroyed. And I built Bezer, for it was in ruins....(Chi) of Dibon wer fifty, for all Dibon was obedient. And I ruled. And I ruled a hundred....in the cities which I had added to the land. And I built [Mede]ba dnd Beth-diblathan. And [as for] Beth-baal-meon, there I placed sheep-raisers....sheep of the land... And [as for] Horonaim there dwelt in it....and.....Chemosh said unto me: "Go down, fight against Horonaim," and I went down and....Chemosh in my day, and from there.....and I.......

Source
Moabite stone - the mesha stele - 930 bc. (2001, September). Retrieved from http://www.piney.com/BabMoabite.html

Moab; moabites. In (1915). J. Orr (Ed.), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/M/MOAB; MOABITES/

Chemosh. Encyclopedia Mythica. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from Encyclopedia Mythica Online.
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/c/chemosh.html

Shamash. Encyclopedia Mythica. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from Encyclopedia Mythica Online.
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/s/shamash.html

"Table of Gods." . N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2013. http://www.eskimo.com/~elladan/gods/. 

Jordan, M. (2005). Dictionary of gods and goddesses. (2nd ed., p. 159). Facts on File.

Picture
elGuaricho. (Artist). (2011, April 4). Battle in the sky [Web Drawing]. Retrieved from http://elguaricho.deviantart.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kingdoms_around_Israel_830_map.svg

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

Moloch God of the Sun and War


This Deity has been much written about, most of it negative. Moloch has been traditionally interpreted as the name of a god, possibly a god titled the king, but purposely mispronounced as Molek instead of Melek using the vowels of Hebrew bosheth "shame". Moloch is the chief God of the Ammonites. His name is also rendered as, Molekh, Molok, Molek, Molock, Moloc, Melech, Milcom or Molcom. He is associated with the sun, war and fire.

The Ammonites worshipped this god by causing their children of both sexes to ritually pass through a fire (Second Kings 23:10). This was a common form of cleansing and initiation used during pagan times in honor of many gods. Evidently the god was popular -- the Israelites were explicitly forbidden from committing "whoredom with Moloch," giving their seed to Moloch, or from offering their children to Moloch (Leviticus 20:2-5). Anyone who violated this order was to be killed by his neighbors.

Historically the view was that children were burned alive as sacrificial offerings to Moloch. This is absolute nonsense, and it is difficult to understand how such an absurd notion can have survived unchallenged for so many centuries. The usual custom when passing through the fire was to leap over a bonfire -- the heat, smoke and light were believed to cleanse the body of the person undergoing the rite. This was done by the ancient Celts and other ancient peoples. A variation on this practice, fire-walking, is common around the world. Evidently children passed through the fire in honor of Moloch when they reached the age of puberty as an entrance into adulthood.

The phrase to "commit fornication" with a pagan god was used loosely in the Old Testament to signify any form of worship of that god. By offering of one's seed to Moloch, the dedication of the children -- the seed of the father -- at puberty to Moloch was likely intended.



According to the rabbinic interpretation, this prohibition is against passing children through fire and then delivering them to the pagan priests. In other words, according to this interpretation, this refers to an initiation rite. This kind of initiation or consecration is actually attested to in various cultures (see T.H. Gaster, in bibl.) and the Septuagint interprets Deuteronomy 18:10 in a similar manner. This is a Midrash of the rabbis likewise attested by the Septuagint.

A similar non-sacrificial tradition, perhaps more ancient, is found in the Book of Jubilees. The Book of Jubilees 30:7ff. connects intermarriage or rather the marrying off of one's children to pagans with the sin of Moloch. This tradition seems to be echoed in the dissenting opinion of R. Ishmael (cf. Meg. 4:9) in Sifrei Deuteronomy 18, who explains the prohibition of Moloch as the impregnation of a pagan woman, an interpretation lying behind the Syriac translation in Leviticus 18 and 20.

The common denominator of all these traditions is the understanding of Moloch worship as the transfer of Jewish children to paganism either by delivering them directly to pagan priests or by procreation through intercourse with a pagan woman. This tradition is in keeping with the general rabbinic tendency to make biblical texts relevant to their audiences, who were more likely to be attracted to Greco-Roman cults and to intercourse with pagan women than to the sacrifice of humans to a long-forgotten god.


 Source 
"Table of Gods." . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar 2013. http://www.eskimo.com/~elladan/gods/. 

Johnston, S. I. (2004). Religions of the ancient world, a guide. Belknap Press.

Moloch. Encyclopedia Mythica. Retrieved May 28, 2013, from Encyclopedia Mythica Online. http://www.pantheon.org/articles/m/moloch.html

Online bos. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.elfinchyldegoddess.1accesshost.com/BOS/deities/ms.html

Video
Moloch - children sacrifice [Web]. (2007). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O3GtbikLmXw

Picture
Anathematixs, . - Ares -. 2007. deviantart.comWeb. 16 Mar 2013. 
http://anathematixs.deviantart.com/art/Ares-46035909. 

philo's note: I know i got dinged a few times on the Natib Qadish facebook group, and that is okay. Some of the information was good, Some of it was intellectual elitism that is so off putting, and some of it was reconstruction-ism vs something new. No matter we move forward.

Friday, December 14, 2012

Shapash. Torch of the Gods

Shapash The Sun Goddess. Also known as The Torch of the Gods, Shapshu, Sapas, Shapas, Shaph and Pale Shapash. She is all-seeing, and is frequently dispatched on errands by El or Anat, acting as their messenger or herald. Much like Hermes, the Greek Messenger-God, She is also a psychopomp, or Deity who leads souls into or out of the Underworld. The idea of the Sun as a traveller to the Underworld is known from other cultures such as Egypt, where in their myths the Sun journeys each night through the land of the dead (or the back/dark side of the world) to emerge once more in the East.

Her Story

In one tale Shapash descends with the Warrior Goddess Anat into the tomb of Ba'al, the Storm God, and while there weeps so many tears that She becomes drunk on them like wine. Later She retrieves Ba'al from Sheol, the Underworld, where Mavet the God of Death reigns, and returns Him to Anat.

Source
Took, Thalia . "Shapash, the Phoenician Sun Goddess--Sapas, Shapshu,sun goddess, psychopomp, anat, mavet, mot, ba'al,heat goddess, phoenician, canaanite, pagan, syrian goddess, pagan goddess, thalia took:." Obscure Goddess Online Directory. N.p., 15 2007. Web. 14 Dec 2012. http://www.thaliatook.com/OGOD/shapash.html>. 

Salim, G. K. (1996, September). Phoenician religion -- pagan:. Retrieved from http://phoenicia.org/pagan.html

Picture
inkscribble, . Shapash. 2009. deviantartWeb. 14 Dec 2012. http://inkscribble.deviantart.com/art/Shapash-124287512.

Tuesday, September 18, 2012

Mot. Lord of the Underworld

Mot, The God of death originated in the Northern Levant. He has been worshiped since prehistoric times up until 200 BC. That was around the time that the Seleucid King Antiochus III invades the Levant. His cult center was possibly Byblos, and the Phoenicians knew him as Muth. Another spelling of his name is Mavet. He is also the God of Adversity, and Sterility. His name means Death. In one hand he holds the scepter of bereavement, and in the other the scepter of widowhood. His jaws and throat are described in cosmic proportions and serve as a euphemism for death.

Mot is the Canaanite representation of adversity in the natural world. He lives in a pit within
the earth and is responsible for its annual death from drought and heat: “he has scorched
the olive, the produce of the earth and the fruit of the trees.” He engages in the classic
confrontation with the Canaanite hero and national god, Baal. Though the duel results in
Baal’s demise, his death is avenged by his sister Anat, who slays Mot, then cleaves,
winnows, burns and grinds him with a millstone, in what appears to be a ritual allied to the
sowing of seed and harvesting. Baal is restored, but had to face off once more seven years later. Neither defeated the other, but Mavet did give in, at the command of Shapash and proclaimed Baal the King of the Gods.The conflict probably formed the basis of an annual ritual drama at the Canaanite New Year which was held in the autumn. In the texts Mot is the son of Il and his mother is Asherah.

SourceJordan, M. (2005). Mot. (2nd ed., pp. 204-305). Facts on File.

Khalaf, S. G. (1996, September). Phoenician canaanite religion -- pagan. Retrieved from http://phoenicia.org/pagan.html

 Picture
~YeaaaArtist. (Artist). (2010). Angel of death. [Web Graphic].
Retrieved from http://yeaaaartist.deviantart.com/art/Angel-of-Death-159628555

Saturday, September 15, 2012

Yamm. Lord of the Seas


God of the ocean. Semitic. Also Known as Yam-Nahar is the Primordial Waters. His name means Sea-River. A Syrian deity who is mentioned in an Egyptian papyrus as an extortioner of tribute from other deities. Yamm was defeated by Baal.  He was originally given kingship by El, and ruled as a tyrant over the Gods. Baal finally rose up against him.

Story
Yam and Ilu have come together at a feast to discuss an attack on Ba’al. Ilu has chosen Yam as king, and therefore, Yam plots to protect his kingship from the most likely threat: Ba’al. Ilu and Yam also make plans to build Yam’s palace. The establishing of a palace acts as a symbol for the establishment of rightful kingship; Ilu notifies Kathir-wa-Khasis, the craftsman Deity, to build Yam’s palace.

Shapshu, the Goddess of the Sun has a chat with Athtar (possibly an astral God and a God of Irrigation). 'Athtar is upset because he has no palace and thus his kingship is not established.

Ba’al sends a messenger to Yam regarding his newly appointed kingship. Ba’al has the messenger curse Yam. Yam, in retaliation, prepares his messengers to go speak to the Assembly of Deities on Mount Lal. Instructing them on how best to insult the Assembly and giving them explicit instructions, Yam sends them on their way. The Assembly sees the messengers coming. They fear bad news and they lower their heads in response. Ba’al encourages the Assembly to raise their heads and informs them that he will answer Yam’s message. The messengers do not bow their heads to honor the Assembly—a supreme insult—and proceed to speak Yam’s harsh words. Yam demands to have Ba’al and his wealth delivered to him. Responding to the insult, Ba’al tries to strike the messengers, but Athtart and Anat restrain him from harming the messengers.

Ba’al delivers himself to Yam, and both verbally battle one another. Kathir has created two magic clubs for Ba’al: Yagarrish to “drive” Yam from his throne, and Ayyamarri to “expel” Yam from his throne. Yagarrish strikes Yam in the middle of his body, but only serves to slow him down; Ayyamarri strikes Yam on the head knocking him unconscious. Ba’al is proclaimed the victor, and holds a feast to celebrate.

Other enemies, allies of Yam, have risen up and 'Anat goes to subdue them. In a gory battle, she collects hands and heads of the enemies she has slaughtered and bathes in their blood. When she finishes the battle, she is still full of bloodlust and thus begins a war in her own home. She sets up her furniture and does battle. Afterwards, she bathes and beautifies herself.

Source
Yamm
Jordan, M. (2005). Dictionary of gods and goddesses. (2nd ed., p. 353). Facts on File.

Khalaf, S. G. (1996, September). Phoenician canaanite religion -- pagan. Retrieved from http://phoenicia.org/pagan.html

Dawson, T. (2011, September 16). Natib qadish: Library of ugaritic literature:.
Retrieved from http://canaanitepath.com/library.htm

Picture

DeadXCross, (Artist). (2008). The atanas. [Web Photo].
Retrieved from http://deadxcross.deviantart.com/art/The-Atanas-87185862

Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Lotan Seven Headed Serpent


Lotan is a seven headed serpent defeated by Baal with the help of Mavet. Anath also claims a role in the defeat of the Serpent. Chthonic entity, sea serpent, supporter and servant of Yammu. Takes the form of a "sea monster" or a "sea serpent." This is probably the same entity, Leviathan, that Yahweh is known for defeating in Hebrew mythology.

Source

Dawson, T. (2011, September). Natib qadish: Inner sanctuary, canaanite gods and goddesses:. Retrieved from http://canaanitepath.com/inner_sanctuary.htm

Khalaf, S.G. (1996, September). Phoenician religion. Retrieved from http://phoenicia.org/pagan.html#anchor119863 

Picture
Fagberry, . Hydra. 2010. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 31 Jul 2012. http://fagberry.deviantart.com/art/Hydra-164727113

Atik, The Calf of El


Atik, is an enemy of Ba'al.He is known as the 'Calf of El'. 

Source
Siren, C. B. (1998, May 5). Canaanite/ugaritic mythology faq, ver. 1.2:. Retrieved from http://home.comcast.net/~chris.s/canaanite-faq.html
 
Picture
Rosario, Nathan. 2006. n.p. Web. 31 Jul 2012. http://nathanrosario.deviantart.com/art/Minotaur-29625734

Monday, February 6, 2012

Ishat, Lady of the Flame


Ishat is a Phoenician Goddess of Fire (Her name simply means "Fire"), called "the Bitch of the Gods". She is mentioned in the Epic of Ba'al as one of the enemies of the God who is destroyed by Anat, the Warrior Goddess. Ishat is called "the Fiery" and is evidentally a Goddess of Fire and Heat; as Ba'al is the God of the Rain and Lightning (personified as the Goddesses Talaya and Pidraya, respectively) who brings life-giving moisture to a dry land, perhaps Ishat represents the burning heat of summer that causes the plants to wither up and die.

Source
Took, T. (2007, December 15). Ishat, phoenician goddess of fire. Retrieved from http://www.thaliatook.com/OGOD/ishat.html

Picture 
Wolf, James. 2010. n.p. Web. 06 Jun 2012. http://jameswolf.deviantart.com/art/Fire-Nymph-184066498

Sunday, February 5, 2012

Arsh, Darling of the Gods

Arsh, Darling of the Gods. He is described as a monstrous attendant of Yamm the sea God. Enemy of Ba'al Hadad, he is defeated by Anat. It is unknown whether Arsh was worshiped in his own right, or was just in the Ba'al epics.

Source

Siren, C. B. (1998, may 5). Canaanite/ugaritic mythology faq, ver. 1.2:. Retrieved from http://home.comcast.net/~chris.s/canaanite-faq.html

Picture 
Sweet Deceit. 2011. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 05 Feb 2012. http://liiga.deviantart.com/art/Sweet-Deceit-259645130

Thursday, February 2, 2012

Nikkal, Goddess of the Orchards


Nikkal, Ugaritic nkl, full name Nikkal-wa-Ib, is a goddess of Ugarit/Canaan and later of Phoenicia. She is a goddess of orchards, whose name means "Great Lady and Fruitful" and derives from Akkadian / West Semitic "´Ilat ´Inbi" meaning "Goddess of Fruit".  

She is also called Nikkal-wa-Ib, meaning "Great Lady and Fruitful". She is sometimes simply called 'Ib, "the Fruitful One". Nikkal-wa-Ib has also been interpreted as "Great Lady and Bright", "Great Goddess of Fruit", or "Fruits of the Earth". 

Alternately, Nikkal is sometimes called the daughter of Dagon of Tuttul, who, like Nikkal-wa-Ib, is a Deity of Fertility and Agriculture, specifically a Wheat-God credited with inventing the plow. 

Her Sumerian equivalent is the goddess Ningal. Nikkal has been identified, is often depicted before a date tree, and other important fruit-trees of the area that would have been in Nikkal's orchards are the olive, fig, and apple, along with nut trees such as the pistachio, walnut, and almond. 

Her husband is the Moon-God Jerah, who causes the dew to fall each night and water Her trees so that they may thrive.

Her Story 
Nikkal is the daughter of the Summer-God Khirkhibi, who did not at first want Her to marry Yarikh, and instead suggested He marry either Pidraya or Yabarodmay, both daughters of Ba'al. After a generous bride-price was offered, made up of a thousand pieces of silver, ten thousand pieces of gold, and including necklaces made of lapis lazuli (appropriate coming from a God of the night sky) Khirkhibi relented and the two were wed. 

Sources
Took, T. (2006). Nikkal, phoenician goddess of fruit and orchards. Retrieved from http://www.thaliatook.com/OGOD/nikkal.html 

Nikkal - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:. (2006). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikkal  

Picture
Gluengo. Eve in Eden. 2010. Photograph. deviantARTWeb. 02 Feb 2012. 
http://gluengo.deviantart.com/art/Eve-in-Eden-184420469

Wednesday, February 1, 2012

Jerah, The Moon God



Jerah is the moon God. He is know as 'The illuminator of myriads (of stars)', 'lamp of heaven', and 'lord of the sickle'. The latter epithet may come from the appearance of the crescent moon. Other spellings of his name are Yarikh, Jarah, Jorah, and Yarkhibol in Phoenician. Jerah is the father of the Kotharat. He is patron of the city Qart-Abilim. Jerah was recognized as the provider of nightly dew, and married to the goddess Nikkal, his moisture causing her orchards to bloom in the desert. The city of Jericho bears his name.

His Story
After sunset he embraces Nikkal-and-Ib and becomes determined to marry her. He seeks Khirkhib out to arbitrate the brideprice, but instead Khirkhib tries suggests other potential mates in the daughters of Baal. Undaunted, Yarikh presents a lavish brideprice to Nikkal-and-Ib's family and the two are wed.

Sources
Siren, C. B. (1998, may 5). Canaanite/ugaritic mythology faq, ver. 1.2:. Retrieved from http://home.comcast.net/~chris.s/canaanite-faq.html

Goldenrowley. (2007, July). Yarikh - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Yarikh

Picture 
RoxRio, . 2009. n.p. Web. 01 Feb 2012. http://roxrio.deviantart.com/art/Moon-Dancer-142971195

Marah, Goddess of the Sweet Waters


Marah is a Canaanite Water-Goddess, considered benevolent and merciful. She is the daughter of the great Mother Goddess Athirat-of-the-Sea, and twin sister to Anat, the Warrior Maiden Goddess. The Phoenician language is closely related to both Hebrew and Aramaic; in Aramaic, the word mrh or mrt can give "Mistress", "Best" or "Bitterness". In Hebrew, mar or marah also means "Bitterness", and Marah is used of a place in the Sinai where Moses and the Israelites stopped at a spring of bitter water. This Hebrew word has also been taken to be the root of the name Mary.

Source
Took, T. (2006). Marah, phoenician water goddess. Retrieved from http://www.thaliatook.com/OGOD/phoenician.html

Picture 
Kamillyonsiya, . 2008. n.p. Web. 01 Feb 2012. http://kamillyonsiya.deviantart.com/art/Aphrodite-81028767

Anat, The War Maiden


Anat is a love, and war Goddess.  She is also known as Lady of the Mountain, Virgin Anat, and Mistress of the Sky. Some alternate spellings of her name are Anath, and Antit. She was worshiped mainly in northern Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Egypt.  Her main cult center was in the ancient city Ugarit. Her period of worship was from 2500 BC, around the start of the construction of the pyramids in Egypt,  up until 200 AD.

The sister of Baal, in art she is usually depicted naked, with breasts and vaginal area prominent. In addition to her fertility role, she is a youthful and aggressive goddess of war, a capacity in which she was adopted by Egypt from the end of the Middle Kingdom (early eighteenth century BC) and particularly through the Hyksos Dynasty when she was prominent in Lower Egypt. Known as the “virgin Anat,” she indulged in orgies of violence “wading up to her thighs in blood and gore.”

Her Story
In the classic Canaanite confrontation legend, after the primordial battle between good and evil in the guise of Baal and Mot, Anat searched out the body of Baal. She buried it and caught up with his slayer, Mot, to take appropriate retribution. She cleaved and winnowed, burned and ground Mot in a curious variation of a common theme associated elsewhere with gods of vegetation. In the Legend of Aqhat, she sends an eagle to slay the youth when he refuses to give her his magical bow.

Edit: There was an error in saying Anat is primarily a fertility Goddess. 
 
Sources
Jordan, M. Dictionary of Gods. 2nd ed. Facts on File, Inc, p.19. eBook.

Picture 
Merkymerx, . 2010. n.p. Web. 01 Feb 2012. http://merkymerx.deviantart.com/art/God-of-War-Nyssa-177607922

Monday, January 30, 2012

Shalem, The Evening Star

Shalem is Known as the God of the Evening Star. The evening star is the planet Venus as seen in the western sky after sunset. He is also known as the contemplation of the day, and 'the stable one' he is connected to the evening star and is paired with Shahar who is connected to the morning star. The two gods are called the 'celestial ones' and correspond to the Greek Castor and Pollux. His name appears in the names Jerusalem 'the foundation of Shalem' and two of David's sons, Absalom 'the father is Shalem' and Solomon 'belonging to Shalem'. It is odd that David would name two of his sons after a Canaanite deity -- the god of the city he captured and made into his capitol unless it was to appease the locals. 

Shalem's consort is called Shulmitu or Shlmanitu and is referred to in Assyrian texts as the "Ishtar of Jerusalem". This is important as these two names are thought to correspond to the two lovers in Song of Songs, Solomon and Shulamite. One would assume Song of Songs was included into the Bible on the mistaken belief that it was referring to King Solomon (who never accurately figures in the book) when in fact it is a sexual-love poem between two Canaanite deities.

Sources
Swezey, T. F. (2002, may 01). Part 5. canaanite diety names that became hebrew word (2). Retrieved from http://www.winternet.com/~swezeyt/bible/oedipus/swezoed5.htm

Picture
Queerangel8900, . In the Dark of Night. N.d. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 30 Jan 2012.

Thursday, September 8, 2011

Shachar, The Morning Star

Shachar is known as the God of the Morning Star. Today we would know it as the planet Venus that we see in the morning just as the sun begins it climb into the sky. He is also a war God, and the lord of the dawn. He is mention briefly in the holy bible in Isaiah as the father of Helel the Light-Bringer. In the current King James version of the bible, Shachar is translated as the dayspring. It is unknown when he worshiped, but Shachar is part of the Ugarit pantheon. The city was existed from 1450 BCE to 1200 BCE which ended in the migration conquest of the Sea-Peoples.

His Story
Ēl came to shores of the sea and saw two woman who bobbed up and down. Ēl was sexually aroused and took the two with him, killed a bird by throwing a staff at it and roasted it over a fire. He asked the women to tell him when the bird is fully cooked, and to then address him either as husband or as father, for he would thenceforward behave to them as they call him. They salute him as husband. He lies with them and they gave birth to Shachar 'Dawn' and Shalim 'Dusk'.
 
Sources
Arora, N. (2011, April). Pictures, photos of ugarit (ras shamra), syria. Retrieved from http://www.shunya.net/Pictures/Syria/ugarit/Ugarit.htm

Tever, G. (2011, Septmber). Dayspring in the bible encyclopedia - isbe (bible history online). Retrieved from http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/D/DAYSPRING/

El (god). (2011, July). Retrieved from http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/biblianazar/esp_biblianazar_jehovah04a.htm

Table of gods. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.eskimo.com/~elladan/gods/origin.html

Khalaf, S.G. (1996, September). Phoenician religion. Retrieved from http://phoenicia.org/pagan.html#anchor119863

Picture
kiiroikimono, . Colombe du Soleil. 2008. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 08 Sept 2011.
http://kiiroikimono.deviantart.com/art/COLOMBE-DU-SOLEIL-87376318

Saturday, August 6, 2011

Anobret, Mother of Ieoud

Anobert was mentioned briefly in the writings of Sanchoniatho as the mother of Iedud, the only begotten son of El. It is unknown whether she was worshiped outright or was just part of the ancient mythology. 

Her Story
For Cronus, whom the Phœnicians call Il, and who after his death was deified and instated in the planet which bears his name, when king, had by a nymph of the country called Anobret an only son, who on that account is styled Ieoud, for so the Phœnicians still call an only son: and when great dangers from war beset the land he adorned the altar, and invested this son with the emblems of royalty, and sacrificed him.

Edit: I have informed me that Anobert is not related to the Arabian God Anbay. My apologies to Lady Anobert, and Lord Anbay.

Sources
The theology of the phŒnicians: from sanchoniatho. (2004, July). Retrieved from http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/af/af01.htm

Mythhome: middle east gods and their associates:. (2008, August). Retrieved from http://www.mythome.org/mideastg.html  

Picture 
LAS-T, . Strei Devi. 2011. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 06 Aug 2011. 
http://las-t.deviantart.com/art/Strei-Devi-208532515

Sunday, July 31, 2011

Resheph, The Lord of pestilence

Resheph is the Lord of war and pestilence. Resheph was originally a Syrian God, and was worshiped by the Canaanites, Phoenician, and Egyptians. The Greeks equated Resheph with the God Apollo. He was known to the Sumerians as Nergal. Some alternate spellings of his name are Resˇep-Amukal Rasˇap, Resˇef,and Resˇep-Sulman. His wife is Allat, the Goddess of the Underworld. Resheph was a popular deity. It is unknown when he worshiped, but was introduced into Egypt in the sixteenth century BC. His worshiped survived well into the Hellenistic period where he was worshiped a long side or as Apollo.

Sources
Jordan, M. Dictionary of Gods. 2nd ed. Facts on File, Inc, p.265. eBook.

Picture 
godofwar, . Aries. 2009. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 31 Jul 2011. 
http://godofwar.deviantart.com/art/Aries-121892553

Saturday, July 30, 2011

Allatu, Goddess of the Underworld


Allatu is the Goddess of the Underworld. The Sumerians knew her as Ereshkigal, the Romans connected her with Minerva. She was worshiped in Nabatea, Carthage, Sumeria and around the Levant. The exact time of her worship is unknown, but her shrine was destroyed in Arabia by the Prophet Mohamed in 630 AD. She was well loved by her worshipers all around, and many children carried her name.

Her Story
They then adopted Allat as their goddess. Allat stood in al-Ta'if, and was more recent than Manah. She was a cubic rock beside which a certain Jew used to prepare his barley porridge (sawiq). Her custody was in the hands of the banu-'Attab ibn-Malik of the Thaqif, who had built an edifice over her. The Quraysh, as well as all the Arabs, were wont to venerate Allat. They also used to name their children after her, calling them Zayd-Allat and Taym-Allat.

Source
Gibson, D. (2000). Nabataean religion: pantheon. Retrieved from http://nabataea.net/gods.html

Ibn-Al-Kalbi, H. (1952). The book of idols [Translation from Arabic by Nabih Amin Faris]. Retrieved from http://www.answering-islam.org/Books/Al-Kalbi/allat.htm

Jordan, M. Dictionary of Gods. 2nd ed. Facts on File, Inc, p.13. eBook.


Picture 
chainsawdroid, . 2011. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 30 Jul 2011.

El Shaddai, Lord of the Mountain

El Shaddai is the God of the Mountain. He is also known as the god of Abraham, and as the lord of open wastes. He is also known as the destroyer, and the Almighty. An alternate spelling of his name is Sadidus in Sanchuniathon writings. This deity was worshiped in the Amorite city of Shaddai in northern Syria. The bible does make mention of Abraham worshiping and speaking with this deity. If this is the case Yahweh could in fact be the ancient God Sadidus. This deity is very important to the ancient Israelites, but in Canaanite mythology he plays a small role. 

His Story
And Kronos, having a son Sadidus, dispatched him with his own sword, because he regarded him with suspicion, and deprived him of life, thus becoming the murderer of his son.

Sources
Shaddai - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:. (2011, March). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaddai 

Argyros , G.A. (2008, January). Phoenician chronology:. Retrieved from http://www.argyrou.eclipse.co.uk/myths/bible/PhoenicianChronology.htm  

Picture 
Giacobino, . Resurrection_ Resurreccion. 2009. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 30 Jul 2011.
http://giacobino.deviantart.com/art/Resurrection-Resurreccion-147062698

Monday, July 25, 2011

Manat, Goddess of Fate


Manat is the Goddess of Fate. The Greeks knew her as the Nemesis, Goddess of Retribution. Another spellings of her name is Manawat. She was worshiped by the Nabeteans. The Nabetean kingdom lay just south of Judea. Her worshiped survived until Islam. In 630 AD her temple was destroyed in the raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. This was around the time Mecca was conquored by the prophet Muhammad. She is El's daughter. It is unclear how important she was in the Nabatean mythology, but she was well loved and during her time of worship many children carried her name.

Her Story
The most ancient of all these idols was Manāt. The Arabs used to name their children 'Abd-Manāt and Zayd-Manāt. Manāt was erected on the seashore in the vicinity of al-Mushallal in Qudayd, between Medina and Mecca. All the Arabs used to venerate her and sacrifice before her. The Aws and the Khazraj, as well as the inhabitants of Medina and Mecca and their vicinities, used to venerate Manāt, sacrifice before her, and bring unto her their offerings... The Aws and the Khazraj, as well as those Arabs among the people of Medina and other places who took to their way of life, were wont to go on pilgrimage and observe the vigil at all the appointed places, but not shave their heads. At the end of the pilgrimage, however, when they were about to return home, they would set out to the place where Manāt stood, shave their heads, and stay there a while. They did not consider their pilgrimage completed until they visited Manāt.

Sources
Ibn-Al-Kalbi, H. (1952). The book of idols [Translation from Arabic by Nabih Amin Faris]. Retrieved from http://www.answering-islam.org/Books/Al-Kalbi/manah.htm

Gibson, D. (2000). Nabataean religion: pantheon. Retrieved from http://nabataea.net/gods.html

Picture 
janpaulvogelenzang, . Arabian Princess. 2010. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 25 Jul 2011. http://janpaulvogelenzang.deviantart.com/art/Arabian-Princess-176612248

Saturday, July 23, 2011

Iedud, the only begotten son of El


Iedud is the only begotten son of El, Father of the Gods. It is unknown when or if Iedud was worshiped out right. Could it be that Iedud is in fact the Ieuo, who is Yahweh, spoken about in the Sanchuniathon? 
The story of Iedud, and Jesus are very similar. Both are the 'only begotten' sons, and both willingly gave their life for their fathers. The reoccurring storyline of the son dying for the father is a recurring theme in Semitic mythology. Some examples are Abraham, Issac, and El, and Shaddai.
If in fact Iedud is also Jesus, then it is probable that he is the most worshiped deity, surviving into modern times. Regardless, in Canaanite mythology Iedud is very important, as his sacrifice saved the world.

His Story
It was the custom among the ancients, in times of great calamity, in order to prevent the ruin of all, for the rulers of the city or nation to sacrifice to the avenging deities the most beloved of their children as the price of redemption: they who were devoted this purpose were offered mystically. For Cronus, whom the Phœnicians call Il, and who after his death was deified and instated in the planet which bears his name, when king, had by a nymph of the country called Anobret an only son, who on that account is styled Ieoud, for so the Phœnicians still call an only son: and when great dangers from war beset the land he adorned the altar, and invested this son with the emblems of royalty, and sacrificed him.

Sources
Hare, J.B. (2010). The theology of the phŒnicians: from sanchoniatho.. Retrieved from http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/af/af01.htm

Picture 
simonetti, leone. N.d. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 23 Jul 2011. http://leonesimonetti.deviantart.com/

Baalat, Lady of knowledge, and learning.


Baalat is the protector of the city of Byblos, and a Goddess of wisdom, and learning. Some of her titles are, Lady of Byblos, Mistress, Lady, Queen, and Beloved of Hathor. Some alternate spellings of her name include, Ba'alath, Belit, Baltis, Baaltis, Dione, and Ba'alat Gebal. She was worshiped in the Levant, though the time period for when she was worshiped is unknown. She was eventually assimilated into the Egyptian goddess Hathor. She had a shrine in Gubla. Most images show her in Egyptian style dress. It is unknown how important a role she played in Canaanite mythology. Although Sanchoiatho writes that she is a sister to El.

Sources
Took, T. (2006). Ba'alat, lady of byblos.. Retrieved from http://www.thaliatook.com/OGOD/baalat.html

Table of gods. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.eskimo.com/~elladan/gods/origin.html

Hare, J.B. (2010). The theology of the phŒnicians: from sanchoniatho.. Retrieved from http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/af/af01.htm

Picture 
writer, christ. Wisdom. 2008. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 23 Jul 2011. http://christwriter.deviantart.com/art/Wisdom-81572568

Thursday, July 21, 2011

Dagon, Lord of grain.


Dagon is a grain and fertility god. His title is Lord of the grain. Some alternate spellings of his name are, Daga, Dagan. Dagon is a Western Semitic deity worshiped by the Canaanites and Phoencians. Major worship is thought to have ended in 150 BC. Around the time of the Roman censor Cato calls for the destruction of Carthage in the Roman Senate. Dagon was worshiped in the Levant, and had major cult centers in Mari, Gaza, and Asdod. Dagon is incredibly important to the mythology of the Canaanites. He is the father of the God Baal.

His Story
The father of Baal in Ugaritic creation epics. A major sanctuary was built in his honor at Mari (Syria) and he was recognized in parts of Mesopotamia where he acquired the consort Salas. Worshiped mainly at Gaza and Asdod, but also the supreme god of the Philistines. Known in biblical references as Dagon (Judges 16.23). Mentioned in the apocryphal Book of Maccabees. The cult is thought to have continued until circa 150 BC. Israelite misinterpretation of the Ugaritic root Dagan led to the assumption that he was a fish god, therefore attributes include a fish tail.

Sources
O'Connell, R. (1999). Mythhome: middle east gods and their associates. Retrieved from http://www.mythome.org/mideastg.html#Semite

Jordan, M. Dictionary of Gods. 2nd ed. Facts on File, Inc, P.70. Print.

Picture 
Karmypu, . Ettore. 2009. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 21 Jul 2011. http://karmypu.deviantart.com/art/Ettore-138281641

Astarte, Goddess of Love and Passion.


Astarte is a Fertility goddess. Some of her titles include, Goddess of Heaven, Ashtart-Name-of-Ba'al, Ashtart-of-the-Sky-of-Ba'al, the Strong One, Ashtart-of-the-Fields, Ashtart-of-the-Battle; and Kbd, Glory. Some alternate spellings of her name are,  Ashtart (either "the Star", or "She of the Womb") Attart (Ugarit). She was worshiped by the Phoenicians from around 1500 BC to about 200 BC. Which ended around the time of Carthage's expulsion from the island of Malta. Astarte had many cult centers which include, predominantly Tyre; also Sidon, Byblos, Ascalon, Carthage, Kition (Cyprus), Eryx (Sicily) and Malta. Astarte plays promimently in the Canaanite mythology.

Her Story
Astarte was worshipped with the young God 'Adon, in the town of Aphek or Aphaca in Palestine, the modern Afka. He was a young and very beautiful God with whom she fell in love. Alas, one day while out hunting He was killed by a boar and the Goddess mourned terribly for Him.

Sources
Took, T. (2006). Ashtart, the phoencian great goddess. Retrieved from http://www.thaliatook.com/OGOD/ashtart.html

Jordan, M. Dictionary of Gods. 2nd ed. Facts on File, Inc, 34. eBook.

Picture 
lilok-lilok, . Aphrodite. 2009. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 21 Jul 2011. http://lilok-lilok.deviantart.com/art/Aphrodite-135628905

Adonai, Lord of Springtime.


Adonai is a fertility and vegetation deity. He holds the title of The Lord of youth, beauty and the spring. His name is Greek is Adonis. He is a Western Semitic deity worshiped in the Levant. He was worshiped from 200 BC to around 400 AD. His worship ended around the time of the first Germanic invasions into Rome. His major cult centers were in Berytus and Aphaca. Adonai was a He was a very popular, very important deity to the mythology of the Canaanites.

His Story
Adonai is modeled on the Mesopotamian dying vegetation god Dumuzi (Hebrew: Tammuz). He appears as a youthful deity. The river Adonis (Nahr Ibrahim) is sacred to him largely because its waters flow red after heavy winter rains, having become saturated with ferrous oxide. He is the consort of Astarte. Tradition has it that he was killed by a boar during a hunting expedition and is condemned to the underworld for six months of each year, during which the earth’s vegetation parches and dies under the summer sun and drought.

Sources
Jordan, M. Dictionary of Gods. 2nd ed. Facts on File, Inc, p.4. eBook.

Picture 
ceruleanvii, . October. 2008. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 21 Jul 2011. http://ceruleanvii.deviantart.com/art/October-96438073

Rahmaya, Goddess of healing.


Rahmaya is a Goddess of Health and Nurses. She is called Merciful. Some other spellings of her name are Rahmay, Rohmaya, Rachmay. It is unknown when she was worshiped. Rahmaya was probably worshiped in the Levant. Rahmaya played a significant role in Canaanite mythology giving birth to one of the twin Gods of Shachar and Shalem.

Her Story
The story goes that once when El was young and handsome, He happened across two beautiful Goddesses, Athirat and Rahmaya, whom He woos by cooking Them a dinner of roast bird. He then asks if They would prefer to be His daughters or His wives; charmed by Him and His presumably excellent cooking, They agree to marry Him. Athirat and Rahmaya later give birth to the Gods of Dawn and Dusk, Shachar and Shalim, who, though technically half-brothers, are always referred to as twins. Rahmaya is evidentally a double of Athirat in this story.

Sources
Took, T. (2006). Rahmaya, the merciful. Retrieved from http://www.thaliatook.com/OGOD/rahmaya.html

Table of gods. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.eskimo.com/~elladan/gods/origin.html

Picture 
Echelon-X, . AMBROSIA. 2008. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 21 Jul 2011. http://echelon-x.deviantart.com/art/AMBROSIA-104866272

Baetylus. Defender of the House of God


Baetylus is a protective deity. Some of his titles include House of God, and Confidence of Israel. Some alternate spellings are Bethel, Baitylos, Beit El. Baetylus is a Western Semitic deity worshiped in the Levant. Baetylus is mentioned in a treaty between the Hittites and the city of Ugarit. He was most worshiped during the Neo-Babylonian period from 626 BC- 539 BC. Which began right around the time King Josiah is defeated by Egypt in the battle of Megiddo. It is difficult to ascertain how important he is in Canaanite mythology, Sanchuniathon writes that he is El's brother.

Sources
Jordan, M. Dictionary of Gods. 2nd ed. Facts on File, Inc, 50. eBook.

Picture 
searas, . Smokin'. 2008. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 21 Jul 2011. http://searas.deviantart.com/art/Smokin-81713936

Monday, July 18, 2011

Asherah. Mother of the Gods


Asherah is the Queen of the Gods. Some of her titles include, Athirat of the sea, Lady of the sea, Mother of the Gods. Alternate spellings of her name are, Athirat, Airat, Asherat, Asherah, Sherah. She is a Western Semitic deity worshiped in the Levant from prehistoric times until about 400 AD. Around the time of the first invasions by Germanic tribes into the Roman Empire. Asherah is a major character in the mythology of the Canaanites. She is protective of her children, acts as an intermediately between her children and El.

Her Story

Asherah is the Canaanite Earth and Mother Goddess, called "Creator of the Gods", who is also known as Athirat. The God El, is Her brother and husband; She is famed for Her great wisdom and as such acts as El's counsellor. She is known for Her protective attitude and kindliness towards Her many children, and frequently persuades El to act on their behalf. She was said to be the mother of the seventy gracious Gods, She is connected with the Sea, as She is said to live by its shores; and Her sons are called "the Cleavers of the Sea": She was invoked to protect sailors and sea-farers. She shared El's temple in Ugarit (the modern Ras Shamrah) and many representations of Her are known from that site.

Sources
Took, T. "Athirat." OGOD. OGOD, 2006. Web. 21 Jul 2011. http://www.thaliatook.com/OGOD/athirat.html.
Jordan, M. Dictionary of Gods. 2nd ed. Facts on File, Inc, p.31-32. eBook.


Picture 
niji707, . Asherat of the sea. 2010. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 18 Jul 2011. http://niji707.deviantart.com/art/Asherat-of-the-sea-159870584

El. Father of the Gods


El, is the Canaanite King of the Gods. Some of his titles include, Father of the Gods, The Creator of Created Things, The Kindly, Kodesh, The Bull God, Father of man. Some alternate names and spellings are, Latpan, Latipan, or Lutpani ("shroud-face" by Strong's Hebrew Concordance). Elus in Greek. He is a Western Semitic deity worshiped in the Levant from around 2500 BC to about 700 BC. That is around the time that King Sennacherib takes many Israelite cities. El is a prominent character in the mythology of the ancient Canaanites. He seems to take pleasure in the world he has created. He is known to drink heavily at banquets, have Ménage à trois on the beach, and is the father of many Gods. He is also protective of his family.

His Story
 
Asherah is his wife. When he was young, El went out upon the sea, and there met Asherah. He then roasted a bird and asked them if She would be His wife or daughter.  She chose to be His wife. El mates with the Goddess and Shachar and Shalim (Dawn and Dusk) are born. This family then builds a sanctuary and lives in the desert for eight years. El wears bull horns upon his helmet, and He is a grey haired and bearded patriarch. He resides at "the Source of Two Rivers" upon Mt. Lel.

El is the son of Sky and Earth. Sky and Earth are themselves children of ‘Elyôn 'Most High'. El is brother to the god Bethel, to Dagon, and to Adonai, and to the goddesses Asherah, and Ba’alat.

Sky and Earth have separated from one another in hostility, but Sky insists on continuing to force himself on Earth and attempts to destroy the children born of such unions until at last El, son of Sky and Earth, with a sickle and spear of iron and drives him off for ever. So he and his allies the Elohim gain Sky's kingdom.

Sources
Khalaf, S.G. (1996, September). Phoenician religion. Retrieved from http://phoenicia.org/pagan.html#anchor119863

Jordan, M. Dictionary of Gods. 2nd ed. Facts on File, Inc, p.87-88. eBook.

Picture
marcoso86, . Theogony- Zeus. 2009. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 18 Jul 2011. http://marcoso86.deviantart.com/art/Theogony-Zeus-134098843

Wednesday, July 13, 2011

In the begining


In the beginning El Elyon created Sky and Earth. From this, a union formed between Sky and Earth. At first they loved each other very much, but soon Earth was pregant, and the love Heaven had soon turned to jealously. Heaven had it in his heart to kill his children, but Earth hid them away. During this time Heaven would continue to force himself on Earth. Soon the children, who would one day become the Gods, were grown and fought against their father, Heaven. The battle was long and furious, but the Gods became the victors, and sent Heaven into exile to the cave of the winds. Their were 8 children born, they were
  • El, who was the first king of the Gods.
  • Asherah, she was the first queen of the Gods.
  • Baetylus, protector of the Elohim.
  • Rahmaya, Goddess of healing.
  • Dagon, Lord of grain.
  • Baalat, Lady of knowledge, and learning.
  • Adonai, Lord of Springtime.
  • Astarte, Goddess of Love and Passion.
After defeating Sky, El became their King. They named themselves Elohim, because they all were of the house of El.

Picture
Kyomu, . The Tower of Erian. 2009. Graphic. deviantARTWeb. 31 Jul 2012. http://kyomu.deviantart.com/art/The-Tower-of-Erian-112682046